South Asia has 23.7% of the global population but only 4.6% of the world’s renewable water sources. Countries in the region already face considerable water management challenges due to high population density, poverty, and a high dependence on agriculture as a source of livelihood. Water resources in South Asia are overexploited and depleting fast, and climate change will only exacerbate existing problems through irregular rainfall patterns and increased incidence of floods and droughts.
Four South Asian countries (India, Pakistan, Nepal and Afghanistan) have successfully applied a new governance framework called “Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change within Governance Systems in South Asia” that allows governments to integrate climate change adaptation into governance systems, policies and plans. This framework identifies barriers and opportunities for climate adaptation mainstreaming.
By 2050, South Asia will need around US$ 500 billion to finance climate change adaptation, and public finances will form a crucial part of that picture. To ensure this, a new framework that helps governments mainstream spending on climate adaptation into domestic budgets, has been successfully implemented in Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines and Thailand.
According to BNPB (Indonesian National Board for Disaster Management), more than 93% of disasters in Indonesia are hydrometeorological disasters. Out of 2,341 disaster events, 787 were caused by flooding. Some of the affected areas share the same watershed, which has proved to share trans-boundary waters that are facing increasing demands for basin development collaboration.
According to the Habitat III – Issue Paper in 2016, Asia is home to half of the urban population of the world, 30% of the urban population resides in slums. Although millions of urban slum dwellers in developing countries experienced significant improvements in their living conditions, there’s still much work to be done. The International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) invites us to rethink the assets that informal settlements’ groups possess and how to strengthen them.